Crnogorski (MNE)English (UK)
Da li bi Crnu Goru trebalo proglasiti bezbjednom zemljom porijekla?

Da li bi Crnu Goru trebalo proglasiti bezbjednom zemljom porijekla?

Nakon uspostavljanja sistema vizne liberalizacije, pitanje velikog broja neutemeljenih zahtjeva za azil iz zemalja zapadnog Balkana (Srbija, Bosna i Hercegovina, Makedonija, Albanija, Kosovo i Crna...

Održana međunarodna konferencija  «Uloga i značaj medija u procesu EU integracija - naučene lekcije i iskustva iz regiona »

Održana međunarodna konferencija «Uloga i značaj medija u procesu EU integracija - naučene lekcije i iskustva iz regiona »

Centar za građansko obrazovanje (CGO), u saradnji sa Daily Press Vijesti, u okviru realizacije projekta „EU vijesti-informiši se!“, podržanog iz komunikacionog budžeta Delegacije Evropske unije u...

Promovisan projekat

Promovisan projekat "Rastimo zajedno 3 – Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale"

Delegacija Evropske unije u Crnoj Gori danas je u prostorijama EU  Info Centra promovisala projekat "Rastimo zajedno 3 – Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale". Projekat ima za cilj...

Ambasador Drobnič gost drugog Evropskog kafea

Ambasador Drobnič gost drugog Evropskog kafea

Centar za građansko obrazovanje (CGO) je danas, u saradnji sa fondacijom Friedrich Ebert (FES), nastavio sa realizacijom projekta «Evropski kafe» u okviru kojeg je organizovan sastanak...

Najava: Prezentacija projekta: Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale

Najava: Prezentacija projekta: Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale

Delegacija Evropske unije u Crnoj Gori organizuje prezentaciju projekta "Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale", 20. aprila sa početkom u 11h00, u prostorijama EU...

  • Da li bi Crnu Goru trebalo proglasiti bezbjednom zemljom porijekla?

    Da li bi Crnu Goru trebalo proglasiti bezbjednom zemljom porijekla?

  • Održana međunarodna konferencija  «Uloga i značaj medija u procesu EU integracija - naučene lekcije i iskustva iz regiona »

    Održana međunarodna konferencija «Uloga i značaj medija u procesu EU integracija - naučene...

  • Promovisan projekat

    Promovisan projekat "Rastimo zajedno 3 – Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale"

  • Ambasador Drobnič gost drugog Evropskog kafea

    Ambasador Drobnič gost drugog Evropskog kafea

  • Najava: Prezentacija projekta: Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale

    Najava: Prezentacija projekta: Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale

EU institutions

 

Institutions of the European Union are the bodies to which the member states authorized the execution of certain responsibilities on the basis of the agreements on the establishment and functioning of the EU. The European council, the Council of ministers and the European Parliament are the institutional triangle in charge of decision making within EU.

The European Council 

evropski-savet

The European Council was founded in 1974 on the initiative of at-the-time French President Pompidou. He long functioned as an ad-hoc body of a political character, as an intergovernmental conference which met each semester and only later evolved into a part of the EU institution system. The European Council is the leading political organ of the EU from its foundation. The EU Council is composed by the Heads of state or Heads of the government of each member countries. Generally, these are the prime ministers of the countries, but only in the case of two states – France and Finland-, those who take part at the summits of the European states are the president of the state.  

Within the institutional system of the Union, the European Council is the highest political authority, so it is essential for the work of all other executive institutions of the EU. Somehow the European Council provides policy guidance for both the Council of Ministers and the European Commission.

A very important role of the European Council is arbitration. All those questions that can not be resolved at the level of Ministers in the debate within the Council of Ministers go to the next level - political arbitration, i.e. they are addressed to and solved in the European Council.

The European Council provides guidance to the so-called common foreign and security policy of the EU.  Issues of highest priority in this area are those related to common political interests, foreign affairs and military aspects of cooperation within EU that are in place since the Maastricht treaty.

After the Treaty of Nice, a decision was made to hold all meetings of the European Council in Brussels.

 

European commission 

evropska komisija

The European Commission is the most important executive institution of the European Union. It protects exclusively the EU interests as a whole, while in other institutions the national impact is still very present. In its composition, the European Commission is two parted. It has a so-called Political part (each member of the European Commission is in charge of a particular department, which implies work on the policies related to the very particular department) and an Administrative part (it includes 26 general directorates, which are responsible for specific areas, nine general and specialized services and several cabinets).

The President and the Commissioners (one from each member state) are elected by member countries after approval by the European Parliament. The mandate of the Commission is five years and may be renewed.

Since 2004 the European Commission has 25 commissioners - each member state has a representative in the Commission. After the first mini-expansion in January 2007, when Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU, the commission received an additional member, a commissioner for multilingualism from Romania. Only Bulgaria lacks a commissioner in the current composition of the Commission. Each commissioner is responsible for a particular area and has a cabinet of six close associates as a support. The Cabinet’s duty is to support the activities of political leadership, provides guidance and forward information to commissioners, but, at the same time, it leaves the administrative implementation to general directorates and subordinate services.

The overall functioning of the Commission is coordinated by the General Secretariat which is also responsible for maintaining links in functioning among other institutions. 

The mandate of the European Commission lasts five years, which coincides with the mandate of the European Parliament. Commission headquarters is located in Brussels. The functioning of the Commission is supported by administrative staff, which numbers around 20 000 people, 2 000 are employed only in translation service. The work of the Commission is carried out through 35 general directorates (Directorate general) and numerous special services.

 

European parliament

Evropski-parlament

One of the main features of the European Parliament (EP) is that it represents a co-decision authority and unlike the Council (where member states are represented), representatives of the European Parliament are elected by the citizens of the European Union. The European Parliament performs three basic functions: legislative, budgetary and control function, while it shares the legislative function with the Council of the European Union. The Parliament has no right to initiate legislature but only to give the consent on the legislative acts already initiated.  It is composed of representatives of citizens (not representatives of member states) elected directly in elections: it is, therefore, the only directly elected body of the EU. The MPs are elected for a 5-year-mandate and the total number of MPs is 750 as stipulated by treaty. The parliament session take place in Brussels and Strasbourg alternately.  

The main difference between the EP and the national parliaments is that there is no division between government and opposition. Parliament does not have a permanent majority nor minority and, since it is an international institution, there is no formal opposition.

The Parliament is elected for a mandate of five years. According to the EU Treaty, elections for the Parliament are direct but the procedure is not generally defined. Every member state has its own procedure regarding elections of its MPs to the European Parliament. Almost every country applies the proportional electoral system. Direct elections are held every five years since 1979.

Groups within the European Parliament are not divided according to state or national affiliation, but according to the programme orientation. Currently, there are ten groups in the Parliament. Regarding the jurisdiction of the Parliament, from the very beginning of its functioning, it is able to dismiss the Commission and, since the Treaty of Amsterdam and Nice, it decides on the establishment of the European Commission.

 

The Council of Ministers of the European Union

savjet ministra eu

The Council of ministers of the European Union is a body representing the interests of the member states whose representatives gather at a ministerial level.

According to the agenda, the Council meets in various formats: foreign affairs, finance, home affairs, education, telecommunications, etc. Two councils are functional within the body: the Council for General Affairs and the Council for External Affairs. The Council is the most important organ in the legislative procedure of the European Union. All meetings are held behind closed doors, no records are published, and the representative of the Commission in charge for the area scheduled in the agenda attends the meetings as well.

The presidency of the Council rotates among the member states every six months. The country that chairs the Council presides all meetings of Council and other bodies of the European Union in which member states are represented. The Council’s decisions are taken unanimously or by qualified majority. Meetings are held regularly once in a month, and, if necessary, an emergency session and informal meetings are held. During these meetings decisions cannot be taken. 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Union

sud pravde

The Court of Justice of the European Union includes the Court of Justice, the Court of first instance and specialized courts. It ensures the respect of law in the interpretation and application of the treaties. The Court of Justice is composed of one judge from each Member State (currently 27 judges) with assistance of 8 general counselors and lawyers. The Court of Justice of the European Union decides on complaints submitted by member states, institutions, physical or legal persons, upon the request of national courts, on the interpretation of law or the validity of acts adopted by institutions of the European Union, as well as other cases that are predicted by treaties.

The verdicts of the Court of Justice of the European Union are final and have a stronger effect than the verdicts of the member states’ supreme courts. Since the European Court verdicts are the sources of law, the role of the court is not just judicial but legislative.  The Court's verdicts are no arbitrary without right to appeal. The language used for filing the complaint – one of the 23 official languages of the EU- will be the official language of the case.  The seat of the Court of Justice is in Luxembourg.

 

European Central Bank

Evropska-centralna-banka

The European Central Bank was established on 1 June 1998 as a successor to the European Monetary Institute. It was the final phase of the establishment of a monetary union on the European level, with a common central bank and single currency. The European Central Bank was created on the "German model", following the example of the Bundesbank. It is headquartered in Frankfurt am Main.

Along with the national central banks of the countries, the ECB makes up the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), responsible for the planning and implementation of the monetary policy in the Euro zone and in the EU countries that have adopted the euro. The ECB represents the European Union in international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The Bank is run by a board of directors (led by the President) and by a Steering Committee, which consists of members of the managerial boards and representatives of national central banks within the ESCB.

The Treaty establishing the European Central Bank guarantees its independence from political structures, both at a national and European level.

Countries outside the "euro zone" are not obliged to act upon decisions of the ECB and, on the other hand, can not affect its policies, but they are still obliged to take into account developments in the Euro zone when defining their own monetary policy.

More information about the European Central Bank can be found at:  www.ecb.eu

 

The European Investment Bank

evropska inves banka

The European Investment Bank was established by the Treaty of Rome in 1958. It is one of the financial institutions of the European Union. Its headquarter is in Luxembourg. The main task of the bank is to contribute to a balanced development of the Community by providing economic and social cohesion of the member states. The bank has legal capacity and it is economically independent.

The European Investment Bank provides long-term financing of projects in accordance with strict banking policy. The bank closely cooperates with the banking community, taking loans on global capital markets and financing various projects. The loans are approved mainly from the global financial market borrowings 

 

European Economic and Social Committee

Sa-sastanka-Ekonomskog-i-socijalnog-komiteta-EU

The European Economic and Social Committee is a consultative organ of the European Union, which brings together representatives of various interest groups within civil society, which support with their studies, recommendations and advice the work of EU institutions such as the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament and the European Commission.

The Committee was established by the treaty of Rome as a mechanism to involve civil society groups in the process of building the common market and to boost the communication and cooperation among the economic and social actors with the EU institutions.

The Commission, the EU Council and the European Parliament are obliged to consult the Committee during the decision-making process in the field of economic and social policy.

On the other hand, the Committee is free to make proposals or to promote initiatives in all matters it considers relevant. EESC has 317 members from all EU countries and the number of representatives per member state is determined in proportion to the number of inhabitants. The members are proposed by national governments and the EU Council confirms appoints them for a mandate of four year. The board is elected every second year, and it consists of 37 members. More info on EESC is available on the site: eesc.europa.eu

 

Committee of Regions

Cor building

The Committee of Regions (COR) ​​was established by the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. Since its establishment it covered five areas of work: economic and social cohesion, trans-European transport networks, energy and telecommunications, healthcare, education, youth issues and culture.

The Treaty of Amsterdam added 5 five new functions to the Committee: employment policy, social policy, environment, vocational education and transport. Traffic as the area covered by the Committee appears twice, but difference lies in the fact that in the first case it is about trans-European network, dealing with European issues only in terms of traffic, while in the second case it is about traffic issues within the member States.

The Committee counts 344 full members, representatives of local and regional authorities, and 344 deputies. The Committee is composed of four political groups and six thematic commissions.

The President of Committee is the head of the institution and chairman of the plenary and committee of foreign affairs. The president and its 5 vice-presidents are elected by members of the committee for a two-year office.

The aim of Committee is to improve the EU legislation through the expertise of local and regional authorities and to make the EU closer to citizens.

 

The European Ombudsman

Evropski-ombudsman-Nikiforos-Diamandouros

The European Ombudsman is the institution mediator in-between citizens and institutions of the European Union. It is appointed by the European Parliament for a period of five years. The Ombudsman receives and investigates complaints filed by citizens of the European Union, companies and organizations. All individuals or entities residing in the European Union may appeal to the European Ombudsman if they consider that their rights are threatened by the institutions of the European Union or any of its bodies. The European Ombudsman is elected for a term of five years with possibility of reelection.

The main function of the Ombudsman is to record the failure in functioning of the administration or omissions in the work of EU institutions that were brought to light by complaints of citizens. The Ombudsman can not act on the basis of complaints related to national, regional or local administrations of the member states. The Ombudsman does not deal with issues that are already in the procedure before the Court or in case the Court already adopted a specific decision in this regard.

More about the Ombudsman can be found at:  www.ombudsman.europa.eu

 

History of the EU

 

istorijat1

The European Union was established with the aim of putting an end to the heavy and frequent wars between neighbours, which culminated in World War II. The European leaders were convinced that the economic and political unification was the only way to ensure long lasting peace in Europe.

The History of the European Union started in 1952 after the proposal of at-the-time French foreign minister Robert Schumann to create the first great European supranational economic integration - the European Coal and Steel Community which would bring together the French and German Coal and Steel industry (ECSC).  The proposal of Schumann came on May, 9th 1950 and since that year this date is celebrated as the Day of Europe. The Treaty on the establishment of European Coal and Steel Community was signed in Paris on April, 18th 1951 and entered into force on July, 23rd 1952. The founders of the ECSC were: Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Netherlands. All major decisions concerning industry and producing of coal and steel in these countries were in the hands of an independent, supranational body called "high power", whose first president was Jean Monnet.

Thanks to the successful functioning of the European Coal and Steel Community, the six founding countries decided to proceed with the integration also in other sectors and areas of economics. On March, 25th 1957 they signed the Treaty of Rome which established the the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European Economic Community (EEC). The agreements came into force on January, 1st 1958 and the Commission chaired by Walter Holstein was established, while on March, 19th of the same year, Robert Schuman chaired the first session of the Parliament.

As a forerunner of the Treaty of Rome, negotiations were held in Messina since 1955 on a conference attended by ministers of foreign affairs of ECSC. On the occasion, discussion was focused on the creation of the EEC, which could be achieved by creating a single market and introducing the four freedoms (free movement of people, work, capital and goods).

The three European communities were united in 1967 and the institutions began common to the three communities - Commission, Council of Ministers and European Parliament. The goal of this unification was to boost development of the economy and to create a single market, in order to achieve sustained economic growth and increase in standard of living for residents of member states.

The first enlargement of the European Community occurred in January 1973 with the accession of Great Britain, Denmark and Ireland. Then, in January 1981 Greece joined the European Union, while on February, 23rd of the following year Greenland withdrew from the community to which it was bound due to Denmark.

In June 1985, the President of the European Commission, Jacques Delores, presented the document “Single European Act”, which envisaged the establishment of a European monetary and political union, major institutional reforms and strengthening of the common market within the European Communities. Shortly afterwards, in January 1986, the third enlargement occurred: Spain and Portugal joined the European Union, followed by the signing of the Single European act.

Belgium, West Germany, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and United Kingdom signed the Single Act on February, 17th 1986, while Italy, Greece and Denmark signed it on February,27th of the same year. It then came into force on 1 July 1987.

The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Finance of the ,,European twelve’’ signed on February, 7th 1992 in Maastricht the European Union Treaty, commonly known as Maastricht Treaty. The Treaty of Maastricht came into force on November, 1st 1993. The Treaty envisaged the creation of the Economic and Monetary Union, which would enable the introduction of the common currency: in January 1994, the European Monetary Institute (EMI), as a precursor of the European Central Bank, was established. The European Union Structural Funds increased significantly and a new Cohesion Fund and European Investment Fund were established to function as a branch of European Investment Bank.

The fourth enlargement took place on March, 25th 1995, when Austria, Sweden and Finland joined the European Union.

At the European Council summit in Madrid held in mid-December 1995, countries agreed to establish a common currency, i.e. euro, and they determined modalities for the circulation of euro as well as criteria to be met by countries to be able to introduce the new currency were defined.  

The Schengen Agreement came into force on March, 25th 1995 and it enabled free movement of people and the abolition of border crossings within the signatory countries: this became integral part of the EU legislation, which has therefore been authorized to deal with immigration matters, control of external borders within the Schengen zone, issuing visas and approving asylum to citizens of other countries.

An agreement on the text of a new treaty was reached at the European Council summit in Amsterdam on June, 16th -17th 1997. After going through some changes, it was then signed on October, 2nd of the same year. Upon completion of the ratification process by all member states, the Treaty of Amsterdam entered into force on May, 1st 1999.

The Treaty of Amsterdam required member states to work on increasing employment rates and to cooperate together for the protection of fundamental human rights and every other kind of freedom and security for European citizens. Cooperation in judicial and criminal matters is also regulated by the treaty.

The European Central Bank (ECB) was established on June, 30th 1998 and it is located in Frankfurt. The ECB is the institution responsible for all activities related to the Euro and concerning the monetary policy of the European Union as a whole.

In order to make the institutions of the EU more efficient, a new treaty was drafted and then signed on February, 26th 2001 in Nice. It entered into force on February, 1st 2003. The aim of the new treaty was to prepare EU institutions to go through the changes that would occur with the enlargement to ten new member states.  

Upon entry into force of the Nice Treaty, the number of areas subject to qualified majority in voting at the Council of the European Union increased, while the right of member states to veto the decisions of the Council of the European Union was abolished in 39 areas. Voting procedures of the Member States in the Council of the European Union were changed due to EU membership of new countries.

After the entry into force of the Treaty of Nice, it appeared necessary to unify all legal documents (8 treaties and more than 50 protocols and annexes) in order to enable a clearer view of EU institutions also for the citizens. For this reason, in 2003, the EU Constitution was drafted.

The fifth round of EU enlargement started in May 2004 with membership of 10 countries (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia) and it was completed in January 2008 with the entry of Romania and Bulgaria.

The Lisbon Treaty was signed on December, 13th 2007, and entered into force on December, 1st 2009. The treaty included amendments on all the previous foundingistorijat2 treaties. The most significant changes brought two new features within the institutional system of the European Union, i.e. the President of the European Council and the High Representative of the European Union in the field of foreign and security policy, in such a way to strengthen the position of the European Union on the international scene. The European Central Bank became one of the fundamental institutions of the European Union and the European Parliament was given a stronger role in the decision-making process thanks to the procedure for co-decision which remains the basic legislative procedure. The Charter of Fundamental Rights became an integral part of the Treaty.

Today the Union counts 500 million citizens and 27 member states.

Galerija cetinje

GALERIJA

 {gallery}cetinje{/gallery}

About project

blok korica

In December 2012 the Centre for Civic Education (CCE) started to implement the project “EU Info Bus – on the road to the EU!” that is carried out in cooperation with the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the NGO Natura and it is supported by the European Union through the EU Delegation to Montenegro and its communication budget.
The project aims to increase capacities of local communities and organizations in Montenegro in the view of contributing to reinforce long lasting effects of the European integration process. More specifically, the projects strives to increase knowledge and degree of understanding of the EU accession process in Montenegro through an educational-informative campaign which is carried out in six municipalities of the Central Region of Montenegro, i.e. Podgorica, Nikšić, Danilovgrad, Cetinje, Kolašin and Mojkovac.
Target groups are citizens of these six municipalities, whose knowledge and active support to the integration process is fundamental for the success of the process itself, and a special focus is given to young generations, students and pupils. Final beneficiaries are all citizens of Montenegro which will enjoy better information and will get ready to actively take part in the process and give their contribution to a full membership of Montenegro into the European Union.
The project “EU Info Bus-on the road to the EU!” seeks to act on two levels of the current challenges. On one side, it aims to inform citizens of the six Montenegrin municipalities by providing locally-relevant, tailored and targeted information. On the other side, the involvement of local authorities, local civil society organisations and media strives to establish a long-lasting cooperation and exchange of information and experience among local authorities, representatives of the civil sector, media and citizens. This will represent a fundamental step forward in the active participation of citizens in the process of EU integration, in particular bearing in mind that the success of the process itself requires full awareness and support of the citizens of Montenegro.
A particular focus will be given to the accession negotiation process as the most demanding and complex part of this European path. It is fundamental to present to citizens the negotiation process in an adequate way that allows them to understand the essence and basis of the process and the advantages arising with EU membership, but also to have clear in mind the obligations and responsibilities that we face along the way. Citizens must be aware of the changes expecting Montenegro in the forth-coming years and how this will affect their daily lives. Integration of Montenegro into the European Union can be successful only if the overall process reaches a high level of understanding and acceptance with active participation of all actors involved.
In the light of the above, we plan several educative and informative activities.
In particular, the key activity is the EU Info Bus, which travels to each six municipalities in the period of February-June 2013: in each municipality the bus will be located in the main square from 11h00 to 14h00 and it will represent the focal point for further activities on EU integration: EU Info stands will be set up with educational materials, quiz, games and promotional materials available to interested citizens. Moreover, in cooperation with municipalities and local partners, we are organizing panel discussions about interesting topics particularly relevant for each municipality. Topics are selected on the basis of a previous research and under suggestions from local administration. As communication is a two-way process, it is key to receive feedbacks from different groups and to establish a good cooperation with them.
In order to educate younger generation, within the activities of the project, we will visit high schools and universities of the six municipalities and we will broadcast the 487284 436897459720475 2103915503 n1first documentary film in Montenegro on European Integration entitled “Europe in my town”. On this occasion, panel discussions will be organised on different topics that will see participation of several experts for each area. In this way, young people will further receive detailed information on the integration.
Following tools were created and developed in order to allow citizens to continuously inform themselves on the EU integration: the website European corner, evropskikutak.me, where all news and information on the process of integration will be made available, the European pulse, the first and only monthly magazine about the process of European integration in Montenegro, and the publication “O čemu pregovaramo i šta nam pregovori sa EU donose?” (What are we negotiating about and what does the negotiation process bring to us?). In this regard, with the aim of increasing interest of journalists in Montenegro to report all aspects of the negotiation process of Montenegro with the European Union in an adequate, professional and research-based way, we will open a contest on the best-journalistic pieces on this subject and we will award the best journalists on the occasion of the marking of the Europe Day.
Within the activities of the project, we will celebrate the 9 May – Europe Day in the municipalities of Podgorica, Cetinje and Kolašin with several different activities. Celebration will be carried out in cooperation with the EU Delegation to Montenegro, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, local authorities, universities and several other partners.
The results that will be achieved through implementation of the project’s activities are: increased knowledge of citizens of six municipalities of Montenegro on European Union, its values, principles, culture, political development and on the process of EU integration of Montenegro; established platform of cooperation among local governments through joint efforts to promote awareness and knowledge on the EU integration in six municipalities; improved access to relevant information on EU and its activities in Montenegro and on the activities carried out by Montenegro in the path towards EU membership.

____No 114____

       cgo-cce-Evropski-puls-114-01

Previous Issues