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  • Da li bi Crnu Goru trebalo proglasiti bezbjednom zemljom porijekla?

    Da li bi Crnu Goru trebalo proglasiti bezbjednom zemljom porijekla?

  • Održana međunarodna konferencija  «Uloga i značaj medija u procesu EU integracija - naučene lekcije i iskustva iz regiona »

    Održana međunarodna konferencija «Uloga i značaj medija u procesu EU integracija - naučene...

  • Promovisan projekat

    Promovisan projekat "Rastimo zajedno 3 – Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale"

  • Ambasador Drobnič gost drugog Evropskog kafea

    Ambasador Drobnič gost drugog Evropskog kafea

  • Najava: Prezentacija projekta: Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale

    Najava: Prezentacija projekta: Rastemo zajedno 3 - Informacije o EU kroz popularne internet portale

EU institutions

 

Institutions of the European Union are the bodies to which the member states authorized the execution of certain responsibilities on the basis of the agreements on the establishment and functioning of the EU. The European council, the Council of ministers and the European Parliament are the institutional triangle in charge of decision making within EU.

The European Council 

evropski-savet

The European Council was founded in 1974 on the initiative of at-the-time French President Pompidou. He long functioned as an ad-hoc body of a political character, as an intergovernmental conference which met each semester and only later evolved into a part of the EU institution system. The European Council is the leading political organ of the EU from its foundation. The EU Council is composed by the Heads of state or Heads of the government of each member countries. Generally, these are the prime ministers of the countries, but only in the case of two states – France and Finland-, those who take part at the summits of the European states are the president of the state.  

Within the institutional system of the Union, the European Council is the highest political authority, so it is essential for the work of all other executive institutions of the EU. Somehow the European Council provides policy guidance for both the Council of Ministers and the European Commission.

A very important role of the European Council is arbitration. All those questions that can not be resolved at the level of Ministers in the debate within the Council of Ministers go to the next level - political arbitration, i.e. they are addressed to and solved in the European Council.

The European Council provides guidance to the so-called common foreign and security policy of the EU.  Issues of highest priority in this area are those related to common political interests, foreign affairs and military aspects of cooperation within EU that are in place since the Maastricht treaty.

After the Treaty of Nice, a decision was made to hold all meetings of the European Council in Brussels.

 

European commission 

evropska komisija

The European Commission is the most important executive institution of the European Union. It protects exclusively the EU interests as a whole, while in other institutions the national impact is still very present. In its composition, the European Commission is two parted. It has a so-called Political part (each member of the European Commission is in charge of a particular department, which implies work on the policies related to the very particular department) and an Administrative part (it includes 26 general directorates, which are responsible for specific areas, nine general and specialized services and several cabinets).

The President and the Commissioners (one from each member state) are elected by member countries after approval by the European Parliament. The mandate of the Commission is five years and may be renewed.

Since 2004 the European Commission has 25 commissioners - each member state has a representative in the Commission. After the first mini-expansion in January 2007, when Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU, the commission received an additional member, a commissioner for multilingualism from Romania. Only Bulgaria lacks a commissioner in the current composition of the Commission. Each commissioner is responsible for a particular area and has a cabinet of six close associates as a support. The Cabinet’s duty is to support the activities of political leadership, provides guidance and forward information to commissioners, but, at the same time, it leaves the administrative implementation to general directorates and subordinate services.

The overall functioning of the Commission is coordinated by the General Secretariat which is also responsible for maintaining links in functioning among other institutions. 

The mandate of the European Commission lasts five years, which coincides with the mandate of the European Parliament. Commission headquarters is located in Brussels. The functioning of the Commission is supported by administrative staff, which numbers around 20 000 people, 2 000 are employed only in translation service. The work of the Commission is carried out through 35 general directorates (Directorate general) and numerous special services.

 

European parliament

Evropski-parlament

One of the main features of the European Parliament (EP) is that it represents a co-decision authority and unlike the Council (where member states are represented), representatives of the European Parliament are elected by the citizens of the European Union. The European Parliament performs three basic functions: legislative, budgetary and control function, while it shares the legislative function with the Council of the European Union. The Parliament has no right to initiate legislature but only to give the consent on the legislative acts already initiated.  It is composed of representatives of citizens (not representatives of member states) elected directly in elections: it is, therefore, the only directly elected body of the EU. The MPs are elected for a 5-year-mandate and the total number of MPs is 750 as stipulated by treaty. The parliament session take place in Brussels and Strasbourg alternately.  

The main difference between the EP and the national parliaments is that there is no division between government and opposition. Parliament does not have a permanent majority nor minority and, since it is an international institution, there is no formal opposition.

The Parliament is elected for a mandate of five years. According to the EU Treaty, elections for the Parliament are direct but the procedure is not generally defined. Every member state has its own procedure regarding elections of its MPs to the European Parliament. Almost every country applies the proportional electoral system. Direct elections are held every five years since 1979.

Groups within the European Parliament are not divided according to state or national affiliation, but according to the programme orientation. Currently, there are ten groups in the Parliament. Regarding the jurisdiction of the Parliament, from the very beginning of its functioning, it is able to dismiss the Commission and, since the Treaty of Amsterdam and Nice, it decides on the establishment of the European Commission.

 

The Council of Ministers of the European Union

savjet ministra eu

The Council of ministers of the European Union is a body representing the interests of the member states whose representatives gather at a ministerial level.

According to the agenda, the Council meets in various formats: foreign affairs, finance, home affairs, education, telecommunications, etc. Two councils are functional within the body: the Council for General Affairs and the Council for External Affairs. The Council is the most important organ in the legislative procedure of the European Union. All meetings are held behind closed doors, no records are published, and the representative of the Commission in charge for the area scheduled in the agenda attends the meetings as well.

The presidency of the Council rotates among the member states every six months. The country that chairs the Council presides all meetings of Council and other bodies of the European Union in which member states are represented. The Council’s decisions are taken unanimously or by qualified majority. Meetings are held regularly once in a month, and, if necessary, an emergency session and informal meetings are held. During these meetings decisions cannot be taken. 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Union

sud pravde

The Court of Justice of the European Union includes the Court of Justice, the Court of first instance and specialized courts. It ensures the respect of law in the interpretation and application of the treaties. The Court of Justice is composed of one judge from each Member State (currently 27 judges) with assistance of 8 general counselors and lawyers. The Court of Justice of the European Union decides on complaints submitted by member states, institutions, physical or legal persons, upon the request of national courts, on the interpretation of law or the validity of acts adopted by institutions of the European Union, as well as other cases that are predicted by treaties.

The verdicts of the Court of Justice of the European Union are final and have a stronger effect than the verdicts of the member states’ supreme courts. Since the European Court verdicts are the sources of law, the role of the court is not just judicial but legislative.  The Court's verdicts are no arbitrary without right to appeal. The language used for filing the complaint – one of the 23 official languages of the EU- will be the official language of the case.  The seat of the Court of Justice is in Luxembourg.

 

European Central Bank

Evropska-centralna-banka

The European Central Bank was established on 1 June 1998 as a successor to the European Monetary Institute. It was the final phase of the establishment of a monetary union on the European level, with a common central bank and single currency. The European Central Bank was created on the "German model", following the example of the Bundesbank. It is headquartered in Frankfurt am Main.

Along with the national central banks of the countries, the ECB makes up the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), responsible for the planning and implementation of the monetary policy in the Euro zone and in the EU countries that have adopted the euro. The ECB represents the European Union in international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The Bank is run by a board of directors (led by the President) and by a Steering Committee, which consists of members of the managerial boards and representatives of national central banks within the ESCB.

The Treaty establishing the European Central Bank guarantees its independence from political structures, both at a national and European level.

Countries outside the "euro zone" are not obliged to act upon decisions of the ECB and, on the other hand, can not affect its policies, but they are still obliged to take into account developments in the Euro zone when defining their own monetary policy.

More information about the European Central Bank can be found at:  www.ecb.eu

 

The European Investment Bank

evropska inves banka

The European Investment Bank was established by the Treaty of Rome in 1958. It is one of the financial institutions of the European Union. Its headquarter is in Luxembourg. The main task of the bank is to contribute to a balanced development of the Community by providing economic and social cohesion of the member states. The bank has legal capacity and it is economically independent.

The European Investment Bank provides long-term financing of projects in accordance with strict banking policy. The bank closely cooperates with the banking community, taking loans on global capital markets and financing various projects. The loans are approved mainly from the global financial market borrowings 

 

European Economic and Social Committee

Sa-sastanka-Ekonomskog-i-socijalnog-komiteta-EU

The European Economic and Social Committee is a consultative organ of the European Union, which brings together representatives of various interest groups within civil society, which support with their studies, recommendations and advice the work of EU institutions such as the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament and the European Commission.

The Committee was established by the treaty of Rome as a mechanism to involve civil society groups in the process of building the common market and to boost the communication and cooperation among the economic and social actors with the EU institutions.

The Commission, the EU Council and the European Parliament are obliged to consult the Committee during the decision-making process in the field of economic and social policy.

On the other hand, the Committee is free to make proposals or to promote initiatives in all matters it considers relevant. EESC has 317 members from all EU countries and the number of representatives per member state is determined in proportion to the number of inhabitants. The members are proposed by national governments and the EU Council confirms appoints them for a mandate of four year. The board is elected every second year, and it consists of 37 members. More info on EESC is available on the site: eesc.europa.eu

 

Committee of Regions

Cor building

The Committee of Regions (COR) ​​was established by the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. Since its establishment it covered five areas of work: economic and social cohesion, trans-European transport networks, energy and telecommunications, healthcare, education, youth issues and culture.

The Treaty of Amsterdam added 5 five new functions to the Committee: employment policy, social policy, environment, vocational education and transport. Traffic as the area covered by the Committee appears twice, but difference lies in the fact that in the first case it is about trans-European network, dealing with European issues only in terms of traffic, while in the second case it is about traffic issues within the member States.

The Committee counts 344 full members, representatives of local and regional authorities, and 344 deputies. The Committee is composed of four political groups and six thematic commissions.

The President of Committee is the head of the institution and chairman of the plenary and committee of foreign affairs. The president and its 5 vice-presidents are elected by members of the committee for a two-year office.

The aim of Committee is to improve the EU legislation through the expertise of local and regional authorities and to make the EU closer to citizens.

 

The European Ombudsman

Evropski-ombudsman-Nikiforos-Diamandouros

The European Ombudsman is the institution mediator in-between citizens and institutions of the European Union. It is appointed by the European Parliament for a period of five years. The Ombudsman receives and investigates complaints filed by citizens of the European Union, companies and organizations. All individuals or entities residing in the European Union may appeal to the European Ombudsman if they consider that their rights are threatened by the institutions of the European Union or any of its bodies. The European Ombudsman is elected for a term of five years with possibility of reelection.

The main function of the Ombudsman is to record the failure in functioning of the administration or omissions in the work of EU institutions that were brought to light by complaints of citizens. The Ombudsman can not act on the basis of complaints related to national, regional or local administrations of the member states. The Ombudsman does not deal with issues that are already in the procedure before the Court or in case the Court already adopted a specific decision in this regard.

More about the Ombudsman can be found at:  www.ombudsman.europa.eu

 

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